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Estonia , officially the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariik), is a country on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland with Finland on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea with Sweden on the other side, to the south by Latvia (343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia (338.6 km). The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands in the Baltic Sea, covering a total area of 45,227 km2 (17,462 sq mi), water 2,839 km2 (1,096 sq mi), land area 42,388 km2 (16,366 sq mi), and is influenced by a humid continental climate. The official language of the country, Estonian, is the second-most-spoken Finnic language. 

The sovereign state of Estonia is a democratic unitary parliamentary republic divided into fifteen counties. Its capital and largest city is Tallinn. With a population of 1.3 million, it is one of the least populous members of the European Union, the Eurozone, OECD, the Schengen Area, NATO, and from 2020, the United Nations Security Council.

Estonia is a developed country with an advanced, high-income economy that has been among the fastest-growing in the EU. The country ranks very high in the Human Development Index, and performs favourably in measurements of economic freedom, civil liberties, education, and press freedom (third in the world in 2012 and 2007). Estonian citizens are provided with universal health care, free education, and the longest-paid maternity leave in the OECD. One of the world's most digitally advanced societies, in 2005, Estonia became the first state to hold elections over the Internet, and in 2014, the first state to provide e-residency.

The culture of Estonia incorporates indigenous heritage, as represented by the Estonian language and the sauna, with mainstream Nordic and European cultural aspects. Because of its history and geography, Estonia's culture has been influenced by the traditions of the adjacent area's various Finnic, Baltic, Slavic and Germanic peoples as well as the cultural developments in the former dominant powers Sweden and Russia.

Today, Estonian society encourages liberty and liberalism, with popular commitment to the ideals of the limited government, discouraging centralised power and corruption. The Protestant work ethic remains a significant cultural staple, and free education is a highly prized institution. Like the mainstream culture in the other Nordic countries, Estonian culture can be seen to build upon the ascetic environmental realities and traditional livelihoods, a heritage of comparatively widespread egalitarianism out of practical reasons (see: Everyman's right and universal suffrage), and the ideals of closeness to nature and self-sufficiency (see: summer cottage).

The Estonian Academy of Arts (Estonian: Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, EKA) is providing higher education in art, design, architecture, media, art history and conservation while Viljandi Culture Academy of University of Tartu has an approach to popularise native culture through such curricula as native construction, native blacksmithing, native textile design, traditional handicraft and traditional music, but also jazz and church music. In 2010, there were 245 museums in Estonia whose combined collections contain more than 10 million objects

The architectural history of Estonia mainly reflects its contemporary development in northern Europe. Worth mentioning is especially the architectural ensemble that makes out the medieval old town of Tallinn, which is on the UNESCO World Heritage List. In addition, the country has several unique, more or less preserved hill forts dating from pre-Christian times, a large number of still intact medieval castles and churches, while the countryside is still shaped by the presence of a vast number of manor houses from earlier centuries.

Historically, the cuisine of Estonia has been heavily dependent on seasons and simple peasant food. Today, it includes many typical international foods. The most typical foods in Estonia are black bread, pork, potatoes, and dairy products.[345] Traditionally in summer and spring, Estonians like to eat everything fresh – berries, herbs, vegetables, and everything else that comes straight from the garden. Hunting and fishing have also been very common, although currently hunting and fishing are enjoyed mostly as hobbies. Today, it is also very popular to grill outside in summer.

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Tallinn, Estonia

An internationally recognised museum of photography with its roots in Stockholm, Fotografiska is a meeting place for art, good food, music, design, and an open mindset. The concept of the Fotografiska Tallinn Photography Museum includes an exhibition and event area, a café, a restaurant, and a fine-art photography shop. Fotografiska was open in Tallinn  in June 2019.

Tallinn, Estonia

Let your imagination fly! Only here, in PROTO Invention Factory in Tallinn, in the former secret submarine factory, will you see prototypes of incredible inventions come to life thanks to the latest technology. PROTO will be open from October 20th. Read more about it!

Thule Koda
Saaremaa vald, Saare County, Estonia

This "alternative history" museum featuring the history of Estonia's largest island Saaremaa offers entertaining activities, exhibitions, and interactive participation (DIY-cinema, 360º movies, etc.). The exposition of THULE KODA introduces the role of Saaremaa in world history as Ultima Thule (the end of the world, the final frontier). Visitors can experience the travels of Pytheas, the geographer from Ancient Greece by exploring the exposition and participating in games.

Narva castle
Narva, Estonia

The Narva Castle is one of the main attractions of Narva city. In the seventh decade of the 13th century, the Danes established a castle as a residence for the Danish King's vice-Regent. The Narva Castle is the most diverse and best preserved defence structure in Estonia. In autumn 2019 a fully renovated medieval castle will re-open. The castle will host historic and contemporary exhibitions.

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Located in the continent of Europe, Estonia covers 42,388 square kilometers of land and 2,840 square kilometers of water, making it the 134th largest nation in the world with a total area of 45,228 square kilometers.


Be it Tallinn, Haapsalu or Voru - we load and unload your goods anywhere in the northernmost country of the Baltic States.

The Freight Forwarder LKW WALTER, the European Transport Organisation, organises your road haulage (full truck loads) from all over Estonia to all European countries and back. We advise you individually in your native language. We also guarantee competitive freight rates thanks to intelligent coordination.

Languages Spoken

Russian is by far the most spoken minority language in the country.

The Baltic Germans (German: Deutsch-Balten, or Baltendeutsche) were mostly ethnically German inhabitants of the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, which today form the countries of Estonia and Latvia. 
The Estonian Swedes, are a Swedish-speaking linguistic minority traditionally residing in the coastal areas and islands of what is now western and northern Estonia. 



The official currency of Estonia is the euro whose currency symbol is € and EUR is its code. However, the kroon whose currency code is EEK and symbol is Kr used to be the country's official currency between the years of 1928 and 1940, and also between 1992 and 2011. The euro started circulating with the kroon between January 1 and 14, 2011, after which Estonia made the euro its sole legal tender.


The Schengen visa is the most common visa for Europe. It enables travelers to enter, freely travel within and leave the Schengen zone from any of the Schengen countries. If you are planning to study, work, or live in one of the Schengen countries for more than 90 days, then you must apply for a national visa of that European country and not a Schengen Visa as this is not permitted.


The electricity sector in Estonia is connected to Finland, Russia and the other Baltic countries. It is one of the dirtiest in the EU in terms of CO2 emissions, as oil-based fuels account for about 80% of domestic production. However, renewables have grown to over 13% of production whereas they were less than 1% in 2000. As such Estonia is one of the countries to have reached its EU renewable target for 2020 already


According to the agreed upon schedule, the Health Insurance Fund (the Ministry of Social Affairs until the end of 2018) organises the procurements of vaccines. A procured vaccine must have a marketing authorization in Estonia and it must comply with all applicable standards. All European licenses are issued by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the National Agency of Medicines will decide on the marketing authorization at the level of a single country. The latter also organizes monitoring of safety.

Emergency Calls

112 is the single emergency number in Estonia.

The European emergency number 112 is the only emergency number in Estonia.

The average time to answer a 112 call is 5 seconds.

The Advanced Mobile Location (AML) service is available in Estonia.

According to the latest E-communications household and telecom single market survey, 72% of Estonians know they can use 112 everywhere in the EU.

Users with disabilities can access the emergency services by SMS to 112.

When to visit
Best time to visit the destination

May to late August is the best time to visit Estonia for warmth, especially in June and July, with Baltic beaches and inland lakes both popular escapes when the sun shines. Spring is ripe for bird watching with Steller's eiders, long tailed ducks, Bewick's swans, and thousands of geese occupying the islands and shallow bays from Feb-April. Autumn can be incredibly rewarding with deep, dark forests and marshlands colliding in a clash of warm colours, although the same can't be said for temps which seem to plummet no sooner September's started.

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Don’t miss to challenge your world

Kaali Meteorite Crater Field

Kaali, on the Estonian island of Saaremaa, is the site of the last giant meteorite impact to occur in a densely populated region. The landscape that the collision left in its aftermath has been the subject of many mythological tales and may have been home to a mysterious ancient cult.

Rummu Underwater Prison

The ruins of the abandoned prison camp outside the small Estonian town of Rummu were once a dreaded stone edifice, but are now a beach attraction. The prison was already established in the 1940s by the Soviet Union. It was built in a convenient location, on the lip of a limestone quarry in which the inmates were forced to toil. 

Madise's Lost Cemetery

If you ever find yourself driving from Paldiski to Madise in Estonia’s Harju County, consider scoping out the abandoned graveyard found on the right side of the road just before entering the village of Madise.

Ruins of an old chapel accompany the cemetery, and there are gravestones dating as far back as 1802, but you have to look for them peeping out from the overgrown brush.

Haapsalu Airfield

Construction on the facility began in 1939 and it was used with few intermissions until the Soviet military finally left Estonia in the 1990s, after which it was left to rot. During its operating life, the airfield was mainly used as a launch site for Interceptor fighter jets. The runways and 28 airplane hangars are no longer in use, but they are are still standing for the most part, a remnant of a darker time in Estonian history.

Hiiumaa Eiffel Tower

Having completed his first tower in 1978 at the tender age of 17, Alliksoo began his career in tower construction. Alliksoo’s first tower was also created for use by Russian forces. In 1978 when he built his structure, it was used to watch over cows in the collective farms in the region. It also attracted KGB interest in the hopes they could see Sweden, 170 miles to the West.

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FAQs about Estonia

How do I find information about scholarships?

Some of the programmes also offer scholarships but it depends very much on the programme. Universities have the most up-to-date information about scholarships offered for their programmes. So choose a programme and then contact the university to find out about scholarships they offer for that specific programme. Please also visit our website, where you can find overall information about funding and contacts.

For studying in Estonia, Non-EU citizens will need a temporary residence permit for study (TRP). You can apply for it at your nearest Estonian Embassy after your have been accepted to the university and received confirmation documents for that purpose. Please use our road maps designed to find most suitable solution for you: You can read more about the temporary residence permit for studying application requirements from here:

In Estonia there is a proportional income tax system. Information about Estonian tax rates can be found on the web page of Estonian Tax and Customs Board . See also EURAXESS.Taxation. If you are a non-resident for tax purposes, please see here: EURAXESS. Taxation of non-residents.

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